A Halo of Thorns

     A golden halo is a symbol of holiness.  However, there was a time when Jesus wore a halo

          of a different kind…..PDF


This IS My body; This IS My blood

     Does the bread and fruit of the vine become, symbolize, or represent Christ's body and blood?

     The Lord's Supper is both physical and spiritual food. How does that help us understand how the

     Lord's Supper is to be a Communion?.....PDF


Casting Your Cares on Jesus

     When partaking the Lord's Supper, what things should we bring?  Should we leave everything at the

     door in order to focus on the cross, or should we bring our sins and our baggage to the cross?.....PDF


Forty Lashes

     What was Jesus' flogging/scourging like? More importantly, what kind of meaning does it have for



Prayers from the Didache

     There is a first-century work called the Didache.  In it, there are three prayers that first-century

     Christians prayed when they partook of the Lord's Supper. Here are those prayers......PDF


Jesus is the Bread of Life

     It wasn't really the manna that was bread from heaven, but Jesus Christ Himself.  His body is real food

     and his blood is real drink......PDF


They Look a Lot Like Me

     All those who had a hand in killing Jesus are not so different from me. Who is it that I should

     look like?.....PDF


What It Means to Examine Yourself

     What is it about ourselves that we should examine when partaking of the Lord's Supper?.....PDF


Be sure to visit Andrew’s PostApostolicChurch

for some great information on Christianity in the second and third centuries.


Biblical Silence

     The Scriptures do not address everything that exists, yet the Scriptures are not silent about how

     we are to interpret the "silence of the Scriptures." This study analyzes some faulty hermeneutics

     and examines what the Scriptures say when the Scriptures are silent.….. PDF


The Lament of a non-Christian

     "I do not do the good that I want to do, but I practice the evil that I do not want to do." When Paul

     wrote this (Rom 7:19), was he talking about the Christian life? Or was he talking about something else?

     This study focuses on Rom 7:4-25 in order to show that Paul is not talking about the Christian life in

     this context. Instead, Paul is talking about the struggle of a non-Christian trying to be righteous without

     God. Paul is lamenting what it is like not having God's Spirit. ….. PDF


Political Slander

     Slander is one of those sins that is largely ignored. This study examines the seriousness of this sin

     with a strong focus on the slander against those in government--one of the more popular objects

     of slander today….. PDF


The Order of Events at Christ's Second Coming

     I've taken all the Scriptures I could find that talk about events at the Second Coming. I have ordered

     them in chronological order to the best of my ability….. PDF


How Does One Walk in the Light?

     John tells us to "walk in the light." That sounds great, but how do we do that? The answer is clear:

     it is all about confession... PDF


A Lost Wallet

     What can we learn from the stress we feel when we lose things? What should our

     response be to God who deeply cares for us?.. PDF


History of Zerubbabel

     See 1 Esdras 3-5 (RSV)…..PDF


God Restores His People

     A Comprehensive study in the book of Ezra. Outline and commentary coming soon.


Rebuilding Jerusalem and Its People's Purity

     A Comprehensive study in the book of Nehemiah. Outline and commentary coming soon.


Rebuild God's Temple:

     A Comprehensive study in the prophecy of Haggai. Outline and commentary…..PDF


God's Promises and Protection of His People

     A Comprehensive study in the prophecy of Zechariah. Outline and commentary coming soon.



The Jews Under Persia

     A Comprehensive Study in Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther, Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi, and parts of Daniel.

     This is a supplement resource that chronologically orders the events of the Jews and Scriptures during

     the empires of the Medes and Persians.  (Refer to my commentaries on these Scriptures for the actual


          The Jews Under Persia…..PDF

          Outline and Commentary on Ezra...PDF

          Outline and Commentary on Nehemiah…..PDF

          Outline and Commentary on Zechariah…..PDF

          God's Q&A on Unrighteous Worship…..PDF


Jesus, the Power of God

     A comprehensive study in the Gospel of MARK. Outline, commentary and suggested

     40-week schedule…..PDF


Map of all locations in Mark



Images of various locations in Mark




     Coming soon.


2Corinthians 9:7

     What does it mean to give without reluctance, not out of necessity, and cheerfully?  This is a full

     explanation of 2Cor 9:7.....PDF


Buying Without Possessing

     In 1Corinthians 7:30, Paul writes an interesting phrase: "those who buy as though they did not

     possess."  What would that look like in our giving?.....PDF


Living Free from All Excess

     John Wesley gave a powerful lesson about how to live a life of giving to the needy.  His example is a

     reminder for all Christians to live free from excess by recognizing the difference between needs and



Using Scripture Only

     Gathering nearly all Scriptures on Christian giving, this is nothing but Scripture itself!.....PDF


What Costs Me Nothing

     Both rich King David and a poor widow can teach us the same, powerful lesson about sacrificial

     giving. Does our giving cost us nothing, or is our sacrifice just that: a sacrifice?.....PDF


Widow-like Giving

     When Jesus taught about the highest standard in our giving, he brought our attention on a

     poor widow in his day.  What is the lesson Jesus wants us to learn from that widow?.....PDF


Contribution Talks


Communion Talks

Various Studies

Old Testament Commentaries

New Testament Commentaries







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